Cancer continues to affect a greater pool of people across the world with each passing year and rigorous research and development activities are currently underway to formulate a formidable therapy and cure for it. A similar R&D activity by the Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) at Fuyuhiko Tamanoi of Kyoto University, in association with specialists from the U.S., France, and Saudi Arabia have come up with a model to examine cancer cells.
Loosely called as a chicken egg tumor model, the research has paved way to the development of a set up wherein cultured ovarian cancer cells can be subjected over the membrane that engulfs a chicken embryo that is ten days old. These tumors are able to develop within three days of the transplant. When subjected to tumor sample extracted from cancer patients, the chicken and egg model provided an easy method for the replication of human cancer. The results were supported by the study that evaluated the characteristics of the tumor, showcasing that it contained all features and symptoms cancer.
Formation of cancer within three days was a surprise to the researchers, particularly when a similar experiment on mice took several weeks. With this model in place, researchers have now started to text anti-cancer drugs that are customized according to the condition of different individual cancers, the essence of personalized medicine. With possibilities of understanding the type of independent cancer within a week, the researchers are sure of paving way to greater understanding and thereby formulating therapies for the patients.
Cancer scientists and mathematicians have found a way to simplify complicated biomolecular data about tumors, in principle making it way easier to prescribe the suitable treatment for a particular patient.
The new computational strategy transforms highly complicated information into a simplified format that focuses on patient-to-patient variation in the molecular signatures of cancer cells, in accordance with the researchers.
Genetic Makeup to Assist Physicians in Taking More Informed Decisions
Donald Geman, a professor in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics who was senior author of the PNAS article said that the main point of this research paper was to introduce this methodology. He further adds that it also reports on some of the preliminary experiments by making use of the method in a bid to distinguish between closely related phenotypes of cancer.
The main challenge for doctors is that each of the primary form of cancer, such as prostrate or breast, might have numerous subtypes, each of which responds differently to a given treatment.
Knowing as much as possible about the impaired biological pathways and genetic makeup of a particular patient could assist the physicians in making more informed decisions about the prognosis and treatment, thereby adjusting them to the particular molecular profile.
Geman, who has earlier devoted many of his years for the improvement of computer vision technology, has been encouraged by the cancer-related project and hopes that it will served as a model for various other fruitful collaborations that involves advanced math and medicine.
This digital approach from scientists at the Johns Hopkins University has been detailed recently on Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a science journal.
A multi-institutional team has reported in their recent paper that oncogenes, i.e. cancer-promoting genes on DNA’s extrachromosomal pieces often drive tumor progression. Genomic alterations were tracked by the researchers at the time when they had been identified in patient samples after and before treatment, in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models, and during tumor cell evolution. Glioblastoma (GBM) tumors bearing underlying processes responsible for cell-to-cell differences have been said to be better understood with the help of the research. This is considered to be a crucial finding as such differences are expected to give their contribution to therapy resistance.
Development of Sequencing-based Protocols to Identify ecDNA More Efficiently
The ultimate aim of the research study is said to determine pathways that could be targeted for the purpose of blocking glioma progression. Published in Nature Genetics, the study was led by Hermelin Brain Tumor Center’s Assistant Professor in Detroit, MI, Ana C. deCarvalho, Ph.D. and The Jackson Laboratory’s (JAX) Professor, Roel Verhaak, Ph.D.
According to the researchers, extrachromosomal (ec) DNA is relatively turned a blind eye to because of the difficulty to identify it with the help of standard sequencing methods. These methods don’t really separate it from chromosomal DNA or identify it accurately. However, ecDNA is now attracting attention and with the advancement of researches, the difficulty to treat GBM and other cancers and rapid evolution of therapy resistance could be explained.
As per Verhaak, if researchers could only learn why and how ecDNA elements form and block the mechanisms, we will have a way to perhaps prevent the formation and evolution of several cancers.
The U.S. researchers indicated that a destructive infection that can cause chronic brain disease in children could present an astounding new treatment for grown-up brain tumor. As of not long ago, Zika was nowhere around being treated as a cure but has always been seen just as a global health danger. However, most recent research demonstrates the infection can specifically infect, weaken, and remove hard-to-treat dangerous cells in grown-up brains. Zika injections reduced the forceful cancer cells in completely developed mice, yet left other brain cells unharmed. Human trials are as yet a way off, however specialists are betting on Zika virus that it could possibly be infused into the mind in the meantime as surgery to expel hazardous tumors, as reported by Journal of Experimental Medicine. The Zika treatment seems to deal with human cell tests in the lab.
Results in Basic Stage, Expected to be Positive on Humans as Well
There are various sorts of brain disease. Glioblastomas are the most well-known in grown-ups and one of the trickiest to treat. They are develop quickly and diffuse, which means they spread through the cerebrum, making it hard to see where the tumor closes and the sound tissue starts. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery may not be sufficient solutions to eliminate these intrusive growths. However, the most recent research, in living mice and gave human mind tissue tests, demonstrates Zika treatment can kill cells that have the tendency to be impervious to other medical treatment. It is assumed that these glioblastoma stem cells keep on growing and dividing on their own, creating new tumor cells even after forceful therapeutic treatment.