Antibacterial drug is defined as an agent that interferes with the growth and reproduction of bacteria that can cause numerous mild-to-severe infections in living organisms. Antibacterial drugs have bactericidal action. They act on various parts of the bacterial life cycle such as protein synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis, cell wall synthesis, and permeability of cell membrane. Thus, they help in treating infections. These drugs have been classified into eight major classes viz. aminoglycosides, β-lactams, tetracycline, sulfonamides, quinolones/fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and phenicols. Phenicols, a broad spectrum antibacterial drugs, is a major class of antibacterial drugs. Phenicols are bacteriostatic in their mode of action. Molecules of phenicols inhibit the elongation step of the bacterial protein synthesis by binding to peptidyl transferase. Phenicols are highly effective against gram positive, gram negative, aerobic and anaerobic bacterial strains. These drugs are specifically used to treat infections caused by Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and Rickettsiae species. Also, this class of antibacterial drugs is not commonly prescribed to treat simple infections such as flu, cold, and sore throat and other minor infections.
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Phenicols are utilized in treating serious bacterial infections (such as meningitis), wherein other medicines do not work, as these drugs are capable of crossing the blood–brain barrier. Phenicols are also employed in combination with other antibacterial drugs in order to increase the overall effectiveness of the treatment. However, they may cause some side–effects, which may lead to unusual bleeding, bruising, or eye-related problems. Growth drivers for the phenicols market include increasing prevalence of highly potent and serious bacterial infections and rising availability of generics in emerging as well as developed markets. Moreover, governments of different countries have initiated various developmental programs to accelerate innovations in antibacterial drugs in order to address the need for better treatment of harmful infections and to overcome rapid development of antibiotic-resistant species. However, patent expiry of drugs and bacterial drug resistance are major restraints for the phenicols market. Certain side-effects associated with long-term use of phenicols have also caused hindrance to use of phenicols for the treatment of infectious diseases.
The global phenicols market can be segmented based on route of administration, distribution channel, and region. Based on route of administration, the global phenicols market can be segmented into oral route and intravenous route. Based on distribution channel, the market can be divided into hospital pharmacies, retail pharmacies, and clinics.