Opioids are strong analgesics that are highly addictive in nature. These are narcotic medications, which are to be administered cautiously to prevent serious side effects. Opioids are recommended for severe pain, which is not expected to be relieved effectively by normal analgesics. The opioid class of painkillers includes codeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphonw, methadone, meperidine, morphine and oxycodone. These opioids are available as single drug product as well as in combination with other analgesic such as oxycodone in combination with acetiaminophen. As these drugs attach to specific proteins called opioid receptors present in brain, spinal cord, gastrointestinal tract and other parts of the body, it can negatively affect these organs if taken for a longer term.
Opioids can cause various side effects such as nausea, constipation, interruption in the CNS functions, prutitis, hyperalgesia, seizures, hallucination and respiratory depression. Long-term use or abuse of opioids can depress respiration and may lead to death if continued. Certain identified opioid induced side effects treatment options to minimize adverse events include dose reduction, symptomatic management and opioid rotation. Physicians support the clinical use of opioid rotation in which, one opioid is exchanged for the other to improve pain control or manage the adverse effects. Symptomatic management includes administration of drugs providing relief from the various side effects.
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Opioid Induced Side Effects Treatment Market: Segmentation
The opioid induced side effects treatment market is categorized based on the side effects caused by opioids and the medications used to treat or reduce the intensity of those side effects. Therefore, based on the side effects, the global opioid induced side effects treatment market is segmented as medications for nausea, constipation, CNS adverse effects and pruritis. Medications for treating opioid induced nausea include antihistamines, antipsychotics and related agents, prokinetic agents and serotonin antagonists. Medications for opioid induced constipation include methylcellulose, polycarbophil, psyllium, lactulose, polyethylene glycol, sorbitol, magnesium citrate, bisacodyl, docusate sodium and senna. Medications for opioid induced CNS adverse effects include haloperidol, risperidone, dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate. Medications for opioid induced pruritis include antihistamines such as cetrizine, diphenhydramine, fexofenadine, hydroxyzine and loratadine. Some of the other recommended treatment drugs include buprenorphine and naloxone.
Rising drug abuse and further research development in this field leading to introduction of new products would drive the global opioid induced side effects treatment market. In April 2014, the FDA approved naloxone (Evzio) as an autoinjector dosage form for home use by family members or caregivers.
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Opioid Induced Side Effects Treatment Market: Region-wise Outlook
Based on geography, the global opioid induced side effects treatment market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World. North America leads the global opioid induced side effects treatment market owing to higher drug abuse levels in this region which demands the need for treatment of the side effects induced by opioids. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention death due to opioid overdose rose from 4,030 deaths in 1999 to 16,651 in 2010. In addition, nearly 60% of the overall drug overdose deaths in 2010 (22,134) in the U.S., was on account of pharmaceutical drugs of which opioid drugs were the reason for three out of every four pharmaceutical overdose deaths. Thus, the need for prevention and control has been recognized in the U.S. healthcare market. However, the Asia-Pacific opioid induced side effects treatment market is expected to grow at a faster rate owing to rising drug abuses in this region which is alarming the need for treating the drug induced side effects.
Some of the key players in the global opioid induced side effects treatment market include AstraZeneca plc, S.L.A. Pharma AG, Shionogi & Co., Ltd., Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and AIKO Biotechnology, Inc.
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