Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare Infections Market: Insights by Size, Status and Forecast 2014 – 2020

Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare Infections Market: Overview

Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare also known as Mycobacterium avium complex causes pulmonary infections in immune compromised patients. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) consists of two species: M. avium and M. intracellulare. As these species are difficult to differentiate, they are collectively referred to as Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. MAC is the most common infection caused due to nontuberculous mycobacterium in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infections are rarely found in immunocompetent individuals. According to Medscape, M. intracellulare accounts for 40% of infections in immunocompetent patients with underlying lung diseases. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is ubiquitous and has been isolated from various samples such as household hot water systems, dust, soil, cigarette filters and others. This ubiquitous nature has been responsible for higher rate of infections in immunocompromised patients and patients with lung disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary malignancy, and cystic fibrosis. Literature suggests that individuals acquire the infections via inhalation or through the gastrointestinal tract by ingestion of food contaminated with the bacterium. The infection may also lead to lymphadenitis in children aged 1 to 4 years of age. Commonly affected lymphnodes include submandibular, parotid, postauricular.submaxillary, and preauricular.

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Common symptoms for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare are cough, excessive sputum production, dysponea, fever with night sweat, fatigue and weight loss. Diagnosis is confirmed through acid fast staining of sputum samples. Various publications report that Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is resistant to antibiotics and antituberculosis drugs. Currently, following antibiotics have been prescribed for treatment of MAC infections:

  • Aminoglycosides (amikacin and streptomycin)
  • Clofazimine
  • Ethambutol
  • Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin)
  • Macrolides (clarithromycin, and azithromycin)
  • Rifamycins (rifampin, and rifabutin)
Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection in patients with lung disease can be treated by surgical excision of pulmonary nodules. Surgeons also advocate that lobectomy has been effective in treating extensive lung infection in patients with antibiotic resistance.
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare lymphadenitis in children is mostly treated by surgical excision of affected lymph nodes. Several of the above mentioned drugs are on WHO’s list of essential medicines.
Although various drugs are available for treatment of the infection, weak research pipeline has posed a threat to the market. Higher prevalence of infectious diseases exists in low and middle income countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO), more than 95% of HIV infected individuals live in developing countries; sub-Saharan region contributes over 25 million HIV infected people while Asia-Pacific contributes 7 million HIV patients. In the U.S. and U.K. however over 1 million individuals suffer from AIDS. Pulmonary diseases are also major predisposing factors for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infections. WHO estimates that over 60 million individuals globally have been known to suffer from moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is predicted that over 90% of COPD deaths occur in low and middle income countries.

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The statistics also forecast that COPD is expected to become third leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. According to statistics published by World Health Organization, lung cancer accounts for over 1.5 million deaths globally. Majority of these mortalities are accounted to developing countries. These statistics suggest that chances of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infections are higher in developing countries. Low awareness of disease and related medical treatment, poor reimbursements and financial inability are major restraints impeding market growth in developing countries. In addition, rapidly developing healthcare sector and increasing per capita income in countries such as India, China, and Brazil have created a profitable market in these courtiers. Rapid diagnosing techniques such as dipsticks will help accumulate accurate perspective of the disease and the population it affects in developing countries. Due to low sanitation in many regions, incidence recorded may well be below the actual number.

Anti-thrombin Activators Market: Key Drivers & On-going Trends 2016 – 2024

Global Anti-thrombin Activators Market: Overview

Anti-thrombin activators are widely accepted due to their role in reducing thrombus formation. Anticoagulants, anti-platelet drugs, and thrombolytic drugs are some of the different types of anti-thrombin activators available, which act by different mechanisms. While anticoagulants restrict blood clotting, thrombolytic drugs are useful in dissolving clots already formed in the human body. Anti-platelet drugs limit platelets aggregation. Anticoagulants can be further divided into direct factor Xa inhibitors, vitamin K antagonists, direct thrombin inhibitors, and heparin. Some of the thrombolytic therapeutic drugs are tenecteplase, lanoteplase, reteplase, staphylokinase, streptokinase, and urokinase. Various new anti-platelet drugs include adenosine diphosphate receptor (ADP) antagonists, thromboxane A2 receptor antagonists, and protease-activated receptors (PAR-1) antagonists.

The market intelligence report on the global anti-thrombin activators market meticulously studies all the important aspects, including vendor landscape, geographical segmentation, analysis of drug type, and key trends impacting the growth trajectory of the market in the near future. It extensively covers data and statistics pertaining to exports and imports, price dynamics, and turnover of the anti-thrombin market and its overlying industries at both global and regional levels. The key players in the market are profiled along with their business strategies, market shares, latest developments, and revenue and cost structures. The report includes a separate section of recommendations by industrial experts for both established as well as emerging players in the market.

Global Anti-thrombin Activators Market: Key Trends

Antithrombotic activators are the most commonly used treatment for arterial and venous thrombosis. The increasing shift towards unhealthy lifestyles is augmenting the occurrence of blood vessel damage and obesity. These conditions trigger the chances of arterial and venous thrombosis. Therefore, their rising prevalence is stoking the growth of the global market for anti-thrombin activators.

However, the dearth of efficient and reliable drugs is hampering the growth of the market. Moreover, the expiry of two blockbuster drugs, Lovenox and Plavix, is opening avenues for generic drug manufacturers. The influx of generic versions is adversely affecting the overall revenue generation of the market. Nevertheless, these factors are also paving way for the development of novel drugs, which is likely to provide a significant boost to the global anti-thrombin activators market in the near future.

Global Anti-thrombin Activators Market: Geographical Segmentation

From a geographical standpoint, the report segments the global anti-thrombin market into North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia Pacific, and the Middle East and Africa. North America will be a prominent market, owing to the high awareness among the populace and growing incidence of arterial and venous thrombosis. On the other hand, Asia Pacific will be a high promising market. The rapidly growing population in countries such as India and China and the lack of effective drugs are rendering the regional market highly opportunistic. The increasing investments in research and development activities in the field and improving healthcare infrastructure are contributing to the growth of the region.

Global Anti-thrombin Activators Market: Competitive Landscape

The global anti-thrombin activators market holds immense potential. The market is characterized by the presence and dominance of pharmaceutical giants. The majority of players are focusing towards extensive research and development activities to build a promising pipeline and enhance their offerings. Key players are also banking on mergers and acquisitions to expand their product portfolio and stay ahead in the market. Some of the prominent companies operating in the global anti-thrombin market are Boehringer Ingelheim, Astra Zeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Novartis AG, Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline Plc., Bayer International, Eli Lilly & Co., and Johnson & Johnson.

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