Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections have created numerous complications for patients in hospitals throughout the world, as these infections are caused by multidrug resistant microorganisms, the recuperation of a patient is drastically reduced and accompanied by several comorbidities. Being multidrug resistant, these organisms are immune to the conventional antibiotics hence difficult to treat. Pneumonia is one of the prominent infections caused in hospital premises. Cases of hospital acquired pneumonia are common in immunocompromised patients, post surgical infections, enteral feeding, elderly and infant patients. As hospital acquired pneumonia is mainly caused as a result of prolonged exposure to ventilator air, it is also called as ventilator associated pneumonia. Major causative pathogens include methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), multi drug resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella and Acinetobacter. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) has also been found to be a major causative agent of nosocomial pneumonia in new borne.
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Currently there are four drugs authorized for treatment of hospital acquired pneumonia; these include Zosyn (piperacillin/tazobactam), Zyvox (linezolid), Tygacil (tigecycline), and Vibativ (telavancin). Consistent research and development is being conducted in view of introducing more effective treatment options. There are five investigational drugs and one vaccine in stage III clinical trials, while ten other candidates in early stage, which mainly include biological drugs.
Tedizolid phosphate and ceftolozane/tazobactam by Cubist Pharmaceutical, ceftazidime/avibactam by AstraZeneca PLC, amikacin inhale by Bayer Healthcare, plazomicin by Achaogen, Inc. and Synflorix by GlaxoSmithKline are the phase III candidates. Considering the antibacterial efficiency, and current market competition, tedizolid phosphate is expected to be the most preferred drug for treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. Amikacin inhale, an aerosolized drug is intended for sale as a drug device combination. Majority of the drugs in the late stages are biological drugs. Aridis Pharmaceutical holds four investigational drugs against various causative agents of hospital acquired pneumonia, each being monoclonal antibody therapy.