In neuroscience, chemogenetics is a fairly new area. The field investigates the use of selective ligands and synthetically derived receptors for temporary activation or deactivation of specific brain areas. Also known as Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDS) – these receptors now find wide use in neuroscience and biology to modify neural activity and behavior temporarily.
Meanwhile, clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) is the most commonly used chemogenetic actuator so far used in DREADD implementation. While the actuator has served to be sometimes valuable in neuroscience studies, it has a number of drawbacks and limitations. This includes slow action and possible side-effects associated with its back-metabolism into clozapine. Clozapine is another actuator that has been extensive off-target effects.
For this, researchers at University of North Carolina and the National Institute of Radiological Sciences have recently introduced a new chemogenetic actuator – deschloroclozapine. The new chemogenetic actuator acts rapidly, and possesses high-affinity, brain penetrable, is selective, and metabolically stable.
The new actuator is presented in a paper published in Nature Neuroscience. This new actuator could eventually be used to induce reversible changes rapidly in the working memory and behavior of animals and even humans.
“The researchers investigated the selectivity and rapidness of deschloroclozapine action,” said one of the researchers who led the study. The team first administered radiolabelled DCZ to animals to express DREADDS locally within the brain, and further examined them with positron emission tomography.
The new chemogenetic actuator tested on both mice and monkeys. Thereafter, the neural activity of both animals recorded after DCZ injections employing two techniques: electrophysiology for monkeys and two-photon calcium imaging for mice.
The administered DCZ rapidly entered into the brain of the animals, selectively binding and occupying DREADDs.
The rising development of solar energy to meet incessantly growing energy needs is primarily fuelling the solar battery market. Rising concerns of emissions of fossil fuels, and their adverse impact on the environment are increasingly pushing the development of renewable sources of energy.
Abundance of solar energy, and relatively easy technique of development of solar energy supports demand for equipment for solar energy production and storage. This includes solar battery. Solar batteries are used to store electricity generated from solar energy. The device converts DC power into AC power for later use.
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Favorable government regulations and availability of subsidies for development of renewable energy has aroused the interest of public and private agencies to participate in these initiatives. Solar energy, wind energy, and hydro energy are some renewable energy initiatives that enjoy government benefits for their development.
The vast applications of solar energy with technological advances in end-use industries augurs well for the growth of solar battery market. Space research, telecom, automobile, and power sector are some end users of solar energy that indirectly stoke demand for solar batteries.
Amidst COVID-19, Disruption of Supply Chains hampers Growth in Asia Pacific
Asia Pacific accounts for significant revenue in the solar battery market. Presence of large solar battery manufacturing units in China, and increasing commitment of nations in the region to use solar energy are crucial factors behind growth of solar battery market in the region. However, the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has impacted growth of the solar battery market in the region. Disruption of production cycles, unavailability of components due to disruption in supply chain, and large inventory of finished products are some factors that have hampered the solar battery market over the past few months. Impact on R&D due to restrictions on field testing to comply with social distancing orders has further slowed the solar battery market in the region.
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A research team has been successful to convert seawater and brackish water into safe, clean potable water in less than 30 minutes. This has been accomplished using metal-organic frameworks and sunlight.
The discovery is a feat to provide potable water for millions of people around the world. The technique has served to be useful in two ways: generate clean water and perform the task in a more energy-efficient way. First, using the technique, researchers could produce 139.5 liter of clean water for one kilogram of metal organic framework used each day. And, the technique is more efficient than current desalination practices.
New technique adheres to recommended dissolved solids in purified Water
Good quality drinking water should have total dissolved solid of less than 600 parts per million, suggests the World Health Organization. Using the technique, researchers were able to achieve total dissolved solid of less than 500 in only 30 minutes. And, could regenerate the metal-organic framework for reuse in four minutes using sunlight.
This work has opened up a new direction for the design of stimuli-responsive materials that enable sustainable desalination and water purification in an energy-efficient manner.
“Meanwhile, desalination is used to address expanding water shortages globally. Desalination is reliable, and due to vast sources of seawater and brackish water, treated water can be integrated with existing aquatic systems with minimal health risks,” said the lead author of the study.
However, thermal desalination by evaporation is energy-intensive, and using other technologies such as reverse osmosis has several drawbacks. This includes high energy consumption and chemical usage in dechlorination and membrane cleaning.
Sunlight is the most abundantly available renewable source of energy on Earth. The development of a new adsorbent-based desalination process using sunlight for regeneration serves to be an environmentally-sustainable and energy-efficient solution for desalination.
B2B telecommunications systems find use in transmitting video, voice, text, and sound, thereby enabling direct communication between various businesses. Two-way communication between clients, businesses and companies is facilitated by B2B (business-to-business) system of telecommunication. This platform is able to deliver an all-inclusive glimpse of places where statistics and data pertaining to financial information, cases, and orders of customers is made visible to them. As such, hassle-free management of extremely complicated hierarchies representing structure of the organization is made possible. This helps to gain access to detailed reporting in split-bill or real-time control policies over use of the service. This factor is estimated to encourage expansion of the global B2B telecommunication market over the period of assessment.
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Growing Dependence of High-end Technologies on Telecommunication Network to Drive Demand
With the advent of high-end technologies, such as internet of things (IoT) and 5G network, the demand for highly reliable network is needed. These advanced technologies also require efficient allocation for resources amongst various end use industries is estimated to support expansion of the global B2B telecommunication market in the near future. In addition, the media and entertainment segment is foreseen to add substantial revenue to the market due to rising demand for VoIP solution, unified communication and collaboration, and cloud communication across various enterprises. This factor is estimated to drive the demand for B2B telecommunication in the forthcoming years.
This system has almost done away with the need for face-to-face communications. In this way, this system has assisted in companies reducing dependency on conferences and travel expenses to reach out to prospective customers. This technology has also helped in sharing knowledge amongst various players in the global B2B telecommunication market in the near future. However, installation of this system requires high investment and there are concerns pertaining to breach of cyber of security, which is likely to impede growth of the global B2B telecommunication market.
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